Perhaps the best known of gems, the diamond is the hardest and their sparkling fire, durability, and rarity make them a prized stone. Most popular diamonds are colorless but may have a yellowish or brownish tint; yellow diamonds have gained popularity and are commonly available. Very rarely, diamond occurs in deep hues of red, blue and green. Diamonds have a brilliant luster and exhibit dazzling color flashes, caused by dispersion of light entering the diamond and splitting into the colors of the spectrum. Diamonds are graded on four attributes: color, cut, clarity and carat weight. The majority of diamonds are mined in Africa.

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